Human right


Human right


Human right – As the rights of mankind human rights are really those right which are provided to all man on the basis that he or she is human being and needs such rights as indispensable to lead a life with dignity.

According to Mary Robinson to protect the fundamental freedoms of each individual and to obtain them the rights which are bestowed individually and collectively on national and international level are called human rights.

The human rights, sometimes are called as natural rights sometimes fundamental rights, sometimes basic rights and sometimes as inherent rights or birth rights.

Historical backgrounds

Historically, the evidence of the struggle of mankind for realisation of human rights is available on 15 June 12 15 when the then King of Britain in relation to human rights issued a document which is known as Magna Carta.

After that in 1628 position of rights and in 1689 bill of rights, the document in connection with human rights, were issued. The custom, of inclusion of human rights in Constitutions began after the French revolution, from 1789.

The U.S.A in 1791, buy it first 10 amendments in the Constitution gave its national basic rights. The human rights were included in the constitutions of Ireland in 1921, Germany in 1933 and India in 1950.

Human right

Human rights on international level

On international level for human rights an institution by the name of peace keeping league was established and in the same continuation in 1920 league of Nations was established. on December 10, 1920. But, these activities on international level provide proved meaningless. After the second world war, the then American president Roosevelt in 1941, advocated for human rights very forcefully and mentioned four fundamental freedoms of human beings.

In 1945, for  establishing United Nations and in discussions for its design, the human rights were also discussed very widely. In 1946, under the chairmanship of Roosevelt, the first human right commission was established, which prepared the worldwide declaration of human rights which was adopted by General assembly on 10 December 1948 and declared as such, later on, 10th December was declared as human rights day. This resolution was named as universal declaration of human rights. In this connection up to 1966, Two covenants were prepared-

  • Covenant on civil and political rights,
  • Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights.

These covenants were implemented from third January and 23 March 1976 respectively. At present in connection with human rights, 43 member commission on human rights and 26 members sub-commission of human rights exist, wherein a post of United Nations High Commissioner of human rights has been created.

Important conventions regarding human rights

  1. The Convention on prevention and punishment of crime of genocide, 1951.
  2. The international convention on Elimination of all forms of racial elimination discrimination 1969.
  3. The Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, 1981.
  4. The Convention on the rights of child, 1990
  5. The Convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families.

Human rights in Indian constitution

The makers of Indian constitution had been very much awake for the human rights from the very beginning, and the main human rights as declared by the U.N. in universal declaration of human rights, 1948 were are placed in the Indian constitution by the Constitution makers.

The following rights may be categorised as human rights in the Indian constitution-

  • Right to citizenship
  • Right to equality
  • Right to freedom
  • Right to life
  • Right against exploitation
  • Right to freedom of religion
  • Cultural and educational rights
  • Right to constitutional remedies

Also Read

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Frequently asked question

  1. The convention on prevention and punishment of crime of genocide, 1951.
  2. The international convention on elimination of all forms of racial discrimination, 1969.
  3. The convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against woman, 1981.
  4. The convention on the rights of the child, 1990
  5. The convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families.

  1. Right to citizenship
  2. Right to equality
  3. Right to freedom
  4. Right to life
  5. Right against exploitation
  6. Right to freedom of religion
  7. Cultural and educational rights
  8. Right to constitutional remedies

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